Production of essential oil from Cumin seeds. More than 40 compounds were identified, mainly monoterpenes (C10H16), such as α-terpinene and terpinolene, but also sesquiterpenes (C15H24) at lower levels. The seeds were collected randomly from Djelfa (300 km South of Algiers, Algeria). and Sayed Ahmad, Bouchra and Talou, Thierry [, (2020) Biomolecules, 10 (7). Pradeep, K.U. ; funding acquisition, T.T., A.H., O.M. Cumin has a distinctive strong flavour. The outcome of cuminaldehyde was completely antagonized by naloxone (2 mg/kg). Ethnobotanical information was structured in use reports and therapeutic applications organised into 13 simple categories. Despite evidence of the interdependence of ethnoveterinary practices and ethnomedicine for human care, the overlap between these two systems and the possible drivers of similarity are rarely addressed in ethnopharmacological literature. The Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seed is also a source of calcium, iron, sodium, and potassium. Subsequently, PA increased to its highest concentration (30-55 DAF) and SFA and PUFA reached their lowest. Cumin seeds nutrition facts Widely popular for their distinctive savory flavor, cumin seeds are one of the routinely featuring ingredients in the North African, Middle-East, Western Chinese, Indian, Cuban and North Mexican cuisine. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. The main components in all the studied essential oils were cuminaldehyde (30.42–33.24 %), γ-terpinen-7-al (20.54–28.36 %), α-terpinen-7-al (about 13 %), γ-terpinene (6,15–12.60 %), β-cymene (4.19–5.38 %), β-pinene (3,10–5.36 %) and p-mentha-1,4-dien-7-ol (0.71–0.99 %). Field experiments were performed at Auch (France) during two seasons (2010 and 2011). The value of this species as a source of healthy oil rich in -3 acid and its effects on cardiovascular disease risk are discussed. CINNAMALDEHYDE 3. In the present study, the extracted essential oil from Golestan landrace contained 62.27% terpenic hydrocarbons, while the amount of these compositions was 51.14% in North Khorasan landrace (Table 3). Pala, V. Erythrocyte membrane fatty acids and subsequent breast cancer: A prospective Italian study. The GC-MS parameters were 250 °C for the injector temperature, 280 °C for the ion source temperature, 70 eV for the electron ionization, 30–300 amu and 2.77 scan/s for the mass spectra range, 1/100 for the split ratio, and 1 μL pentane solution for the injection volume. TERPENOID ALDEHYDES – CUMINIC ALDEHYDE & SOMERIC MENTHADIEN CARBOXALDEHYDES 10. ; Silva, L.S. Carbonyl emissions on Day 1 at 23°C were 74, 146 and 35 µg m-2 h-1, respectively, for MDF, CH and COR. Chemical composition and biological activity of, Sayed Ahmed, B. Etude de L’agroraffinage des Graines d’Apiaceae, Lamiaceae et Chenopodiaceae Pour la Production de Molécules Bio-Sourcées en vue D’application en Industrie Cosmétique. Potassium, phosphorus, sodium and iron were the predominant elements present. Derakhshan, S.; Sattari, M.; Bigdeli, M. Effect of subinhibitory concentrations of cumin (. The different individual means were compared between them using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. Benelli, G.; Pavela, R.; Petrelli, R.; Cappellacci, L.; Canale, A.; Senthil-Nathan, S.; Maggi, F. Not just popular spices! Variations in fatty acid composition during maturation of cumin (, Sharma, L.K. ; Zebib, B.; Merah, O.; Talou, T. Essential Oil Composition of, Bettaieb Rebey, I.; Bourgou, S.; Rahali, F.Z. ; Willis, A.J. A higher moisture content and lower hardness were observed after bread fortification, the influence was more evident with the defatted cake than with seed powder. The oil was colourless to pale-yellow in colour. Different sources of cakes have been used for protein fortification in bread and therefore increased the nutritional and technological attributes [, Moreover, with respect to the biorefinery concept, one other original application of cumin cakes could be the production of binderless fiberboards through hot pressing, with proteins acting as natural binder and fibers as mechanical reinforcement. Recently, many experimental and biological investigations have been carried out in order to validate the ethno-medicinal claims of plants belonging to this family. MUFA, monounsaturated fatty acids; PUFA, polyunsaturated fatty acids; SFA, saturated fatty acids. The dietary intake of Nigella sativa seeds and seed oil is associated with the cure and management of many chronic ailments and improving the general health. Such a valuation has already been highlighted with success using cakes originating from two other, Studied samples showed high levels of TPC and TFC. After stirring, 160 μL of the organic phase were taken and completed with 40 µL BSTFA (bis (trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide) and TMCS (trimethylchlorosilane) (99/1, Moisture and dry matter contents of cumin residues collected after both delipidation and hydrodistillation were determined according to ISO 665:2000 [. Search Google Scholar for this author, Stefanie Bail. Chemical composition of black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) seed extracts obtained by supercritical carbon dioxide at two different conditions that result in total extract (28 MPa/50°C, SFE 1) and major volatile part (12 MPa/40°C, SFE 2) and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of SFE-1 (HD SFE). On the other hand, AgNPs and Bio-AgNPs exhibited considerable anticancer activities on both cell lines. The beneficial and well-known black seed oil comes from the nigella sativa plant, an annual flowering plant with pale blue and white flowers, and a large fruit which contains the black seeds.. This is the first report evaluating the relationship between the chemical compositions of cumin seeds (based on the analysis of the content of catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, proline, protein, terpenic compounds, alcohol/phenols, aldehydes, and epoxides) and the induction efficiency of somatic embryogenesis in two Iranian superior cumin landraces (Golestan and North Khorasan). Coriander contains petroselinic acid, an isomer fatty acid of oleic acid. ; Chemat, F.; Smadja, J. Precautions. Here, we present the first quantitative comparison of remedies used to treat human and animal health among a pastoral society. Proximate composition and mineral contents of spices. Besides, Bio-AgNPs stimulated macrophages to release NO to kill Leishmania parasites. Interestingly, Cumin extract gave rise to no inhibitory effects against AU565 cells. Nutrient content, expressed as a mass percentage of the dry matter (% DM), for cumin seeds from four different geographic origins. VOC emissions depended largely on material and temperature. The temperature program chosen for the analysis was as follows: the initial oven temperature was held at 185 °C for 40 min, after which it increased to 250 °C at a rate of 15 °C/min and maintained at 250 °C for 10.68 min. In addition, large differences were observed between the four geographical origins for phytochemical contents and compositions. ; data curation, B.S.-A., S.G., M.C. Sixty-six plant species from 32 botanical families and ten non-vegetable remedies were documented. Oil accumulation began earlier after flowering (2 DAF) in 2011. The major compounds in all cumin oils were the monoterpenes beta-pinene, p-cymene and gamma-terpinene and the terpenoid aldehydes c … Chemical Composition and Antimicrobial Activity of Cumin Oil (Cuminum Cyminum, … Our results also highlight that bread making could be an unconventional alternative for the exploitation of defatted chia seed. Moreover, origins differed for these traits (, The high mineral content found in Lebanese cumin is close to that of Iranian one (9.5%) [, Protein content ranged from 20.9% to 24.7%, depending on origin (, Soluble sugars presented a large variation between the four tested origins (, The observed results were specific to this study and comparisons could be indicative. … Our dedicated information section provides allows you to learn more about MDPI. You can buy its seeds as well as a ground powder in ready-made packs. Uitterhaegen, E.; Labonne, L.; Merah, O.; Talou, T.; Ballas, S.; Véronèse, T.; Evon, P. Optimization of thermopressing conditions for the production of binderless boards from a coriander twin-screw extrusion cake. © 2008-2020 ResearchGate GmbH. The Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seed is also a source of calcium, iron, sodium, and potassium. The cakes resulting from both delipidation and hydrodistillation were treated using a Soxhlet extraction apparatus, and ethanol as extracting solvent. In vitro comparison of antioxidant capacity of cumin (, Bettaieb Rebey, I.; Bourgou, S.; Ben Slimen Debez, I.; Jabri Karoui, I.; Hamrouni Sellami, I.; Msaada, K.; Limam, F.; Marzouk, B. Twenty-five components representing about 97% of the essential oil were identified in the four samples (, The values of vegetable oil yields and fatty acid composition of cumin seeds from different origins are shown in. A. SUBRAMONIAM, M. N. SATYANARAYANA. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/). A new biorefining approach of cumin seed has been established (. ; Tadros, M. Antiradical and antimicrobial properties of cold-pressed black cumin and cumin oils. ; de Souza-Neta, L.C. reported that partially delipidated cumin residues contain 20% proteins and 5% minerals [, Thus, cumin cakes may have potential uses in various food formulations, showing improved digestibility and good nutritional composition. Vegetable and essential oils were extracted, and their compositions were determined. On the other hand, Bio-AgNPs demonstrated significant inhibitory effects on human breast cancer cells at non-toxic concentrations such as 0.25 and 0.5 μg/ml. Chemical and microbiological characterization of Egyptian cultivars for some spices and herbs commonly exported abroad. These residues revealed interesting antioxidant and antibacterial activities. CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES OF BLACK SEED OIL (NIGELLA SATIVA L.) S. Dinagaran 1, S. Sridhar *1 and P. Eganathan 2. Let's see what its health benefits are The cumin is an herbaceous annual nature with special aromatic properties. Cumin is a popular spice used widely for its distinctive aroma. Sayed Ahmad, B.; Talou, T.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Cerny, M.; Chokr, A.; Kanaan, H.; Merah, O. Fennel oil and by-products seed characterization and their potential applications. Essential oils, phenolics, and antioxidant activities of different parts of cumin (. Next to this, fennel oilseeds by-products exhibited a remarkable antioxidant potential with high phenols and flavonoids contents and exhibited good antimicrobial properties depending on the extract type. ; supervision, T.T., Z.S., A.H. and O.M. Sowbhagya et al. Similarly, we determined that 87.5% and 96% of MCF-7 and AU565 cells were respectively inhibited when they were exposed to the highest concentrations of Bio-AgNPs. However, the largest areas where this, La croissance démographique, la consommation incontrôlée des ressources naturelles ainsi que l’activité industrielle jouent un rôle déterminant dans la dégradation de l'environnement mondial. Ramadan, M.F. Sect. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of the essential oil of. ; project administration, O.M., Z.S., A.H. and O.M. Thus, in the present study, the analysis of these varieties was conducted in order to enhance their valuation as new sources of vegetable and essential oils. Kazemi, H.; Mortazavian, S.M.M. A ce sujet et en se basant sur le concept que les consommateurs partagent la responsabilité de la pollution et de l'épuisement des ressources et leur coût, la mise en oeuvre des ressources renouvelables dans. Protein Bread Fortification with Cumin and Caraway Seeds and By-products Flour. Latv. Obtained results indicated high antileishmanial potential of green nanoparticles on L. tropica parasites, causative agents of Cutaneous Leishmaniasis. Data on lipids and essential oils from Lebanon, France, Algeria and Syria have not yet been undertaken. Important portion of this production might be directed to the fabrication of green pesticides relying on the well-documented efficacy of many essential oils against insect pests as well as vectors, besides their safety for human health and the environment. The Apiaceae: Ethnomedicinal family as source for industrial uses, Pistacia Atlantica Desf., a Source of Healthy Vegetable Oil. and B.S.-A. Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA), Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, 31030 Toulouse, France, Département Génie Biologique, IUT A, Université Paul Sabatier, 24 rue d’Embaquès, 32000 Auch, France, Research Platform of Environmental Science, Doctoral School of Science and Technology, Lebanese University, Campus Rafic Hariri, BP 5, Hadath-Beirut, P.O. Ethnopharmacological relevance Sayed Ahmad, B.; Talou, T.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Merah, O. Zinc, calcium, magnesium, manganese and copper were found at lower levels. The individual components in both essential oils and volatile extracts were identified by comparing their retention indices (RI) (determined thanks to an n-alkanes series) with those existing in the literature [. The essential oils of seeds of anise, cumin, fennel and parsley provided from Saudi Arabia were extracted by hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. High temperature elemental losses and mineralogical changes in common biomass ashes. Muthamma Milan, K.S. After obtaining prior informed consent, data was collected through structured interviews. Nowadays, several crude extracts of plants have been studied for their potential antimicrobial activity or for the identification of new antibacterial agents. Biorefining process of cumin seeds applied in the present study. The statements, opinions and data contained in the journal, © 1996-2020 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated. It is a rich reserve of both vegetable and essential oils. All obtained results validate the health promoting effect of cumin composition as well as its industrial importance along with the residues. Proximate analysis of black cumin seeds showed a composition of 20.85% protein, 38.20% fat, 4.64% moisture, 4.37% ash, 7.94% crude fibre and 31.94% total carbohydrates. Dans ce contexte, une nouvelle approche de la bioraffinage a été développée dans cette thèse, elle a été appliquée à cinq espèces appartenant à 3 familles différentes (Foeniculum vulagre, Cuminum cyminum and Carum carvi (Apiaceae), Salvia hispania (Lamiaceae) et Amaranthus cruentus (Amaranthaceae)). Precautions. This difference in the diversity of therapeutic applications and remedies should be the object of future research. Singh, G.; Singh Kapoor, I.; Pandey, S.K. The standardization of the method is based on a nutritional concept which defines fiber as insoluble vegetable matter which is indigestible by proteolytic and diastatic enzymes and which cannot be utilized except by microbial fermentation in the digestive tracts of animals. The main fatty acids present in cumin seeds were petroselinic and linoleic acids regardless the origin ( Table 2 ). Essential oils and fatty acids composition of Tunisian and Indian cumin (, El-Ghorab, A.H.; Nauman, M.; Anjum, F.M. it is important to mention that the chemical composition of cumin seeds varies considerably depending. When cytotoxic and anticancer characteristics of Cumin extract were investigated, it was established that it did not show any inhibitory effect on J774 cells, while killing the half of MCF-7 cells at investigated concentrations. ; De Greyt, W.; Cerny, M.; Evon, P.; Merah, O.; Talou, T.; Stevens, C. Characterization of coriander vegetable oil of French origin. ; Gaydou, E.M.; Archavlis, A. Khalil, N.; Ashour, M.; Fikry, S.; Singab, A.N. Differences in essential oil yield were observed between the seeds of the four origins (, Twenty-five components were identified in our study (, Vegetable oil yield ranged between 13.4% (Algeria) and 29.1% (France) (, The main fatty acids present in cumin seeds were petroselinic and linoleic acids regardless the origin (, Petroselinic and linoleic acids and the other monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) accounted for more than 60% of total fatty acids whatever the geographic origin (, Four sterols were identified in cumin seeds of all origins, with the main one which was β-sitosterol, the latter representing 43% to 47% of total sterols depending on the origin (, The evaluation of the contents in minerals, proteins and soluble sugars of cumin is crucial in order to identify the varieties with the best nutritional contents. The synthetized nanoparticles were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), UV–visible spectroscopy (UV–Vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nguyen, Q.H. The chemical composition of cumin essential oil used in this study was depicted in Table ... Cumin seeds are used locally in Iran as a fragrant agent for medicinal and aromatic purposes. The antinociceptive effect of cuminaldehyde was reversed in writhing test by L-arginine (200 mg/kg), sodium nitroprusside (0.25 mg/kg), and sildenafil (0.5 mg/kg); however, L-NAME (30 mg/kg) and methylene blue (20 mg/kg) enhanced the effect of cuminaldehyde. Please note that many of the page functionalities won't work as expected without javascript enabled. ; Suma, P.F. ; Geervani, P.; Eggum, B.O. Chemical composition of extracted cumin oil and market cumin oil under study: - The identification of chemical composition of extracted as well as market cumin oil was performed using GCMS. A comparison of the results leads to the conclusion that the constituents of cumin seed and cake can serve as a nutrient source as well as drugs useful in the chemotherapy of certain infections caused by bacteria, and also as an antioxidant agent. The Syrian variety showed the highest value while that of France contained the lowest one. This research received no external funding. The major constituents varied depending on species. When using the HP-5 MS column, the temperature program was as follows: the initial oven temperature was held at 60 °C for 2 min, after which it increased to 220 °C at a rate of 3 °C/min and maintained at 220 °C for 12 min. Chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from some spices widely used in Mediterranean region. the chemical composition of essential oil, which compared with other works showed a great similarity8,9. Mallet, J.F. We calculate the overlap with remedies used for human health and evaluate some of the possible drivers of similarities between the two interlinked medical systems. Hot plate, formalin, and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were used to evaluate nociception in mice. This study was performed in order to assess the fatty acid and volatile organic compound composition of P. atlantica vegetable oil. EOs contents were found higher than the maximum limits for cumin (1.5% - 2.5% on dry weight basis), but the within the limits for coriander (0.1% - 0.5% on dry weight basis) as indicated by the ES and ISO for cumin and coriander seed oils. biomolecules Article Biochemical Composition of Cumin Seeds, and Biorefining Study Othmane Merah 1,2,* , Bouchra Sayed-Ahmad 1,3, Thierry Talou 1, Zeinab Saad 3, Muriel Cerny 1, Sarah Grivot 1, Philippe Evon 1 and Akram Hijazi 3 1 Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-industrielle (LCA), Université de Toulouse, INRA, INPT, 31030 Toulouse, France; bouchra.sayed.ahmad@hotmail.com (B.S.- It could be noticed that cress, mustard, black cumin, and black pepper had higher protein content that ranged from 20.61% to 25.45%, as compared to fenugreek (12.91%) and clove (6.9%). Black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds: Chemistry, Technology, Functionality, and Applications . The essential oils of seeds of anise, cumin, fennel and parsley provided from Saudi Arabia were extracted by hydrodistillation, and analysed by GC and GC-MS. Many types of French bread contain cumin seeds. Cuminaldehyde (Figure 2), cymene, and terpenoids are the major volatile components of cumin (Bettaieb et al., 2011). Gopalan, C.; Rama Sastri, B.V.; Balasubramanian, S.K. The cytotoxic and anticancer effects of AgNPs and Bio-AgNPs were determined by MTT assay. Abstract Proximate analysis of black cumin seeds showed a composition of 20.85% protein, 38.20% fat, 4.64% moisture, 4.37% ash, 7.94% crude fibre and 31.94% total carbohydrates. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. Uitterhaegen, E.; Burianová, K.; Ballas, S.; Véronèse, T.; Merah, O.; Talou, T.; Stevens, C.V.; Evon, P.; Simon, V. Characterization of volatile organic compound emissions from self-bonded boards resulting from a coriander biorefinery. CUMINYL ALCOHOL 5. Sayed Ahmad, B.; Talou, T.; Straumite, E.; Sabovics, M.; Kruma, Z.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Merah, O. Cumin seed oil consists of numerous chemical compounds and the major ones among them are aldehydes, monoterpenes hydrocarbons and oxygenated sesquiterpenes that include cumin aldehyde, α-pinene, safranol, linalool, thymol, myrcene, limonene, 1-8-cineole, p-menth-3-en-7-ol, p-mentha-1, 3-dien-7-ol , caryophyllene , β-bisabolene , β-pinene, P-cymene, β-phellandrene, D-terpinene, … Apart from the proportion of volatile compounds, the chemical composition of seeds from both sources were similar. The major volatile compounds in Bangladesh seeds were p-cymene (36.35%), thymoquinone (29.77%), α-thujene (12.40%), carvacrol (2.85%), β-pinene (2.41%), limonene (1.64%), methyl linoleate (1.33%) and sabinene (1.18%), contribution of these is 87.93% of the total volatile oil. However, lead, cadmium and arsenic were not detected in the seeds. Sayed Ahmad, B.; Straumite, E.; Sabovics, M.; Kruma, Z.; Merah, O.; Saad, Z.; Hijazi, A.; Talou, T. Effect of Addition of Fennel (. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) to saturated fatty acids (SFA) indicated that the content of unsaturated fatty acids was approximately three times higher than that of SFA. There are important similarities between remedies used to treat humans and other animals: two thirds of the remedies used in ethnoveterinary medicine are also used in human health care, and these represent half of the human health treatments. DOI: 10.1007/BF02494130. Fruits presented 2% more oil in 2010 than in 2011. These results represent a milestone to manufacture and commercialize green formulations to be used in crop protection and to combat insect vectors of public importance. Shan, B.; Cai, Y.Z. Its main constituent of aroma compounds are cuminaldehyde and cumi… Chemical analysis has further revealed that the Black Cumin (Nigella sativa) Seed contains carotene, which is converted by the liver into vitamin A. The main phytochemical present in the cumin oil are as follows: 1. In contrast, Algerian cumin showed the lowest yield. Biorefining process of cumin seeds applied in the present study. cumin seeds (3.762%), while both coriander and basil herb had lower amounts (0.285% and 0.686%, respectively). The entire chemicals were intraperitoneally injected. Essential oils and fatty acids composition of Tunisian and Indian cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds: a comparative study. and A.H.; writing—review and editing, P.E., T.T., Z.S., M.C., and O.M. Helium was used as carrier gas at flow rate of 0.6 mL/min. These promising findings are of great economic interest as they can lead to a wild range of novel, bio-based industrial applications from fennel seeds. Sowbhagya, H.B. The chemical composition of the essential oil was examined by GC and GC–MS; 37 components, representing 97.97% of the oil, were identified. Determination of the composition of the essential oil of Marjoram. First Online: 25 November 2020. The fatty acid profile was determined after dissolution of oil in Methyl-tertbutyl-ether (1 mL added to 20 mg) and conversion into fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) by adding trimethylsulfonium hydroxide (0.2M in methanol) (50 µL). [. Fatty acid and monoterpene hydrocarbon constituted … The analysis of the biological activity of the cakes shows that the process of delipidation does not affect their antioxidant and antibacterial capacities. Major nutritional compositions of black cumin seeds – cultivated in Bangladesh and the physicochemical characteristics of its oil Abstract Non – Conventional Seeds are being considered in the study due to their sole chemical compositions and functional properties. Emam, O. Plant specimens were acquired, identified and deposited in the Botanical Laboratory Herbarium of the University of Tiaret. This review paper may help upcoming research activities on Apiaceae family membersby giving up to date information on their main common features, their origins and traditional backgrounds. ; John, S.; Agarwal, D.; Yogi, A. Preponderance of cumin (. Its warm aroma is due to its essential oil content. This review article has surveyed the relevant literature on Nigella sativa from 1960-1998 and examines the scientific evidence for these … Samatha, T.; Shyamsundarachary, R.; Srinivas, P.; Swamy, N. Quantification of total phenolic and total flavonoid contents in extracts of. De plus, l’utilité du tourteau d'extraction comme (ii) substrat pour la fabrication d'agromatériaux par thermopressage et comme (iii) un ingrédient dans des formulations de pain de blé entier a été examinée. A rapid procedure for determining cellwall constituents of plants consists of the determination of the fiber insoluble in neutral detergent and is applicable to all feedstuffs. Name of the compound RT Cumin oil extracted from whole seeds (%) Total phenol analysis: Automation and comparison with manual methods. ; Dholakia, H.; Kaul Tiku, P.; Vishveshwaraiah, P. Enhancement of digestive enzymatic activity by cumin (, Sowbhagya, H.B. ; Salama, O. Higher temperature resulted in higher emissions which decreased over time, except for formaldehyde. K.K. The Table 1 shows the compounds identified by GCMS present in cumin oils. ; software, O.M. … Indicators chosen to compare the materials were physical properties (density, bending properties, surface hardness, thickness swelling and water absorption) and VOC emissions. ISSN 2218-273X. Black cumin seeds, frequently known as Black Seeds During the experiments, antileishmanial effects of synthetized nanoparticles were determined on both promastigote and amastigote forms of Leishmania parasites by detecting different parameters such as proliferation, infection index and produced nitric oxide (NO) amounts from macrophages. Acad. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the effect of wheat bread fortification with varied levels (2%, 4%, and 6%) of chia seed powder (full fat) and cakes (defatted, residue after oil extraction). Oil was conserved in a dark bottle at 4 °C. Many studies have focused on the analysis of the antioxidant activity of extracts and cumin essential oils [, Antibacterial activities of residual cakes and aromatic water from cumin seeds of French origin were investigated, and the results showed an effective inhibition of pathogenic bacteria for methanolic extract of delipidated cake (, Interest in plants with antimicrobial properties has been revived because of drug resistance associated with the use of antibiotics. Good-quality cumin shouldrelease pleasant yet peppery flavor when squeezed between index and thumb fingers. Conclusion The plants most often cited by interviewees are all harvested from the wild (Echinops spinosissimus Turra, Atriplex halimus L., Artemisia campestris L., Juniperus phoenicea L. and Peganum harmala L.). Simon, V.; Uitterhaegen, E.; Robillard, A.; Ballas, S.; Véronèse, T.; Vilarem, G.; Merah, O.; Talou, T.; Evon, P. VOC and carbonyl compound emissions of a fiberboard resulting from a coriander biorefinery: Comparison with two commercial wood-based building materials. Results showed that delipidated cake was richer in nutrient than cake obtained after hydrodistillation.