A schematic cross-section that shows how the depth of a 500 °C isotherm (a line of constant temperature) varies across a subduction zone boundary. C.J. The report is compiled on the basis of the explanatory text to the map of metamorphic facies of the For deep crustal studies, velocities in metamorphic lithologies are likely to be of more significance than velocities in igneous rocks. Figure 20.8 is a schematic diagram that shows the depth at which 500°C is reached across a subduction zone boundary. Das Substantiv Englische Grammatik. The eclogite facies is an extremely high grade region of the plot and comprises metamorphic rocks that are a bit beyond our level in GY 111. Under these conditions the crust thickens via several mechanisms that include folding, magma injection, thrust faulting, and simple compression. The facies are divided by the value of pressure into two distinct series: *) Report to the working group on the map of metamorphic facies presented at the session in Århus, 13-18. The second reason is the general absence of fluid (usually H2O or CO2 in the form of a gas-liquid known as a supercritical fluid that can diffuse through solid like a gas and dissolve material like a liquid). (d) ~300oC (e) It will melt 42. TABLE II. A possible pressure-temperature path that preserves blueschist facies metamorphism is shown as Path B in Figure 20.9. K. Bucher, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005. PDF | A scheme of facies of regional metamorphism is proposed in which two pressure dependent facies series are recognized. There is, however, an abundance of blueschist and some eclogite facies rocks in the Coast Ranges as well as isolated blueschist rocks in the Klamath Mountains and Sierra Nevada. Chernicoff and Whitney (2002) Metamorphism . Metamorphic petrologists studying contact metamorphism early in the 20th century introduced the idea of metamorphic facies (part of a rock or group of rocks that differs from the whole formation) to correlate metamorphic events. We therefore take this opportunity to speculate on it, in the particular case of granitoid mylonite zones. FIGURE 6. Characteristics of Metamorphic Belts. However, we must not allow its artificiality to bind us rigidly, nor must we lose sight of its highly qualitative and provisional character. Under these conditions, the blueschist facies mineral assemblage will be destroyed in favor of an amphibolite facies mineral assemblage. h�bbd```b``� "�A$�$���d���. Storia. • Explain how metamorphic facies and index minerals are used to characterize metamorphism in a region. Substantive können mit einem Artikel (Geschlechtswort) und i. Seismic facies are mappable three-dimensional seismic units composed of reflection units whose parameters differ from adjacent facies units. Searle, in Treatise on Geophysics (Second Edition), 2015. Although radioactive decay is time-dependent, the preservation of daughter isotopes or fission tracks is temperature–time-dependent because of the diffusion processes acting to homogenize the phases in question. Most of the turbidites are within the chlorite zone, with localized development of biotite zone conditions in contact aureoles around granitic plutons. Average velocities at temperature and pressure for metamorphosed shale. This depends on the rock fabric: the way the different components are arranged (Jordan, 1988). There are two reasons. (PDF) METAMORPHISM, METAMORPHIC FACIES AND MINERAL PARAGENESIS | Nelson Nwobi - Academia.edu Metamorphic rocks are rocks whose characters have been changed from its original form by processes operating within the earth. P. Eskola (1915), classified and grouped systematically the diverse type of metamorphic rocks on the basis of: a. The granulite facies consists of very high grade metamorphic rocks like gneiss. Figures 5 and 6 show a simplified metamorphic facies classification after Yardley (1989) for metamorphic lithologies exclusive of the low-pressure, high-temperature hornfels. Metamorphic grade is generally low across the Tasman Orogenic Belt (Fig. O’Brien et al. Note that the isotherm is subducted with the subducting plate and rises over the volcanic arc. The boundaries between the facies are depicted as wide bands because they are gradational and approximate. However, the dominant influence in many instances is temperature. 3 and Table II). Blueschists are easy to recognize because, unlike most rocks, they really are blue. Download as PDF. What this means is that, in an ancient mountain belt, we can use the temperature and areal extent of metamorphism as an indirect measure of the intensity of mountain building (that is, the intensity of uplift/erosion). 7), with greenschist facies (epizonal) and subgreenschist facies (anchizonal) metamorphism of the turbidite sequences. When rocks are pushed into the Earth they, like all things, instantly feel the pressure of the overlying rock column. Plane-polarised light, field of view 5 mm. Metamorphism in the Cordillera, by contrast, is spotty, mainly because the mountain system is young and has not yet undergone deep erosion to expose metamorphic rock. Under those conditions, quartz can flow plastically and feldspar cannot. A high geothermal gradient is established below the uplifting mountain and metamorphism occurs. METAMORPHIC ROCKS | Facies and Zones. Amphibolite facies rocks will be mostly schists and gneisses, while high grade metamorphic rocks will be dominated by gneisses. Evidence for subduction in the Zagros comes from three main sources: (1) windows in the Hajiabad area at the SE end of the Sanandaj–Sirjan zone, (2) the ∼29 shreds of Mesozoic ophiolites incorporated within the Zagros orogen, and (3) blue amphiboles in the mafic inclusions carried to the surface in the diapirs of Hormoz salt found at the northeast end of the simply folded belt. All of the rocks are at amphibolite facies. High activity of Na in the salt diapirs provided a suitable mechanism to form blue amphiboles before the theoretical values of pressure and temperature. This was based on the succession of, Qualitatively, the reaction sequence in natural rocks is often visible in the form of growth features, compositional zoning, or breakdown textures. and export them together (again, in PDF format). This gradient, however, is not sustained but decreases to no more than about 16°C/km at a depth of 40 km. This spotlights an unrecognized bias in past studies, which have unconsciously supposed a deep, Andean-style subduction in which the slab proceeds to lower mantle depths. Mountain-building processes have the effect of increasing the geothermal gradient, which results in the metamorphism of crustal rocks. All the forces in the material are being transmitted between the contacts of the hard grains. The metamorphic facies scheme (Figures 1 and 2) requires the presence of a free aqueous fluid.The facies figures have been prepared with this premise. Metamorphic facies. P.J. Integrated PTt path for the Tso Morari eclogites in Ladakh, NW India, showing all U–Pb age data. Hypothetical pressure-temperature paths A and B. FIGURE 20.7. Lernen Sie die Übersetzung für 'metamorphic' in LEOs Englisch ⇔ Deutsch Wörterbuch. 1. Plutonic rocks are also categorized on the basis of their age and the relation of their intrusion to metamorphism. Weakly metamorphosed rocks may still preserve fossils, thus putting a maximum age limit, or rocks may have fossiliferous deposits overlying them, thus giving a minimum age limit. The lithological components that melt are similar to those in the subduction scenarios considered above, but the pressures at which melting occurs are lower (Fig. While these rocks will be exposed to the same range of pressure and temperatures conditions within that setting, the metamorphic rock that results will depend on the protolith. VIdeo Lecture: Metamorphism of Basic Rocks. To sum up, a metamorphic facies is the set of minerals found in a rock of a given composition. Metamorphism ends before the rock leaves the blueschist facies pressure-temperature field. Figure 10.35 Metamorphic facies and types of metamorphism shown in the context of depth and temperature. Set alert. The map at a scale of 1:7.500.000 is based on a cartographic map at the scale of 1:5.000.000. English: The different metamorphic facies constrained by temperature and pressure. The temperature and pressure conditions under which each rock occurs, and the rocks’ diagnostic mineral assemblages, are shown in Figure 20.7. • Explain why fluids are important for metamorphism and describe what happens during metasomatism. Date: 11 October 2012, 17:18:20: Source: This is a retouched picture, which means that it has been digitally altered from its original version. Winter Although there has been some experimental work on the formation of mylonites in analog materials (Kawamoto and Shimamoto, 1998), there has been little discussion of the mechanism for this softening in the literature. Without scale numbers, names and/or units, to make clickable templates. This assumption is manifested in the lowest pressures in experimental studies, which often begin at 2.5 or 3 GPa (Mallik and Dasgupta, 2014; Hermann and Spandler, 2008; Tsuno et al., 2012) or much higher pressures (Rapp et al., 2008; Grassi and Schmidt, 2011). Metamorphic facies by Dave Waters, su teachserv.earth.ox.ac.uk. Voci correlate. Some minerals, like zircon, can survive even the highest temperatures unscathed, whereas other minerals, like micas and feldspar, only start their use as geochronometers at lower temperatures. It’s a nice feature that enables you to customize your reading material, but it’s a bit of a hassle, and is really designed for readers who want printouts. They indicate the presence or past presence of a subduction zone. It has also been observed, however, that mylonite zones, like brittle fault zones, widen with net shear across them (Hull, 1988). The Facies Classification of Metamorphic Rocks - Volume 61 Issue 4 - C. E. Tilley Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. Kyanite is absent. This results in abundant postcollisional volcanism that lies compositionally between calc-alkaline and strongly potassic compositions, exemplified by multiple collisions in the Mediterranean over the past 100 million years (Prelević et al., 2012). Metamorphic facies. The easiest way to read Wikibooks is simply to open them in your web browser. English: Diagram for metamorphic facies in the Earth's interior. Il termine facies è stato riferito per la prima volta ad uno specifico ambiente sedimentario, costituito da rocce tipiche, da parte del geologo svizzero Amanz Gressly nel 1838. Both eclogite boudins and blocks and metamorphic host rocks must have been subducted to depths in excess of 100 km, either during the final phase of ophiolite obduction or during the earliest phase of continental collision. Thus, the strength of the rock will decrease progressively as the mylonitic fabric develops and rotates toward the plane of shear, on which it will have the greatest resolved shear stress. Once shearing begins, the mylonitic fabric begins to be developed, which changes the ordering of the mineral phases. FIGURE 4. Areas of greenschist facies rocks are present in mountain blocks across the Basin and Range. The concept was first defined in 1914 by a Finnish petrologist, Pentti Eelis Eskola, The increase in temperature is the primary driving force for reaction. With the major exception of the Valley and Ridge, nearly the entire US Appalachian Mountain belt was subjected to at least greenschist facies metamorphism, with more than half reaching high-grade amphibolite-granulite facies conditions. If by chance they are sliced off the subducting slab but remain at depth, they will continue to heat and metamorphose until they reach the same temperature as surrounding rocks. Freeman. Note how the isotherm dips to great depths within the subducting slab. Definition (amerikanisch) metamorphic, facies: Thesaurus, Synonyme, Antonyme metamorphic, facies: Etymology metamorphic: metamorphe Fazies. The mineralogies of metamorphic rocks and hence their velocities and densities are functions of many variables, the most important being bulk chemistry, pressure and temperature history, and the availability of water during metamorphism. %PDF-1.7 %���� h�b``�a``ja�``�^� € ",�@���°���yo��aD쾮N�,o��Ӻ�7�|k��H�i�c���`� =@����Ң@,2�хA����7g7��^S^�X^�������8���g������ieZq�m�� �@$ ` �^' endstream endobj 305 0 obj <>>>/Metadata 217 0 R/Pages 301 0 R/Type/Catalog>> endobj 306 0 obj <>/ExtGState<>/Font<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageC/ImageI]/XObject<>>>/Rotate 0/Type/Page>> endobj 307 0 obj <>stream (2003) measured U–Pb ion microprobe ages of 46.2 ± 0.7 Ma from zircon rims, interpreted as dating the timing of UHP metamorphism. (a) Zeolite, blueschist, ecologite facies The question is what controls the strength, the strong component or the weak component? Earlier reports of microdiamonds within eclogites from Tso Morari (Mukherjee et al., 2005) are not supported by any petrologic, thermobarometric, or other data, and phase diagram modeling suggests that pressures did not extend into the microdiamond field (St-Onge et al., 2013). This, in turn, increases the rate of erosion. Metamorphic facies. Figure 9. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves. The Facies Classification of Metamorphic Rocks - Volume 61 Issue 4 - C. E. Tilley Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The minimum melt temperature for metabasalts can be as low as 700°C in the middle crust. ), but those names don’t mean that the facies is limited to that one rock type. Chapter 26: Metamorphic Reactions. PDF: Metamorphic Mineral Assemblages. The most common metamorphic facies in mountain belts are the greenschist and the higher-temperature amphibolite facies. K. Bucher, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005. The facies figures have been prepared with this premise. Th–Pb SHRIMP dating of monazite cores surrounded by allanite rims in the host Puga gneiss constrains equilibration of the garnet–cordierite–sillimanite–biotite–plagioclase–quartz + melt assemblage at 45.3 ± 1.1 Ma (St-Onge et al., 2013). P-T scheme of metamorphic facies. THE MAP OF METAMORPHIC FACIES OF THE U.S.S.R. The fine details of the melt-producing process has, therefore, consequences for the requirement of a free H2O fluid in rocks. Path B reaches blueschist facies and is then immediately returned to the surface. The sequence of minerals that develop during progressive metamorphism (that is, metamorphism at progressively higher temperatures and/or pressures) define a facies series. *NOTE the pressures and temperatures correlated with the Eclogite facies. The type example is the Abukama plateau of Japan, which is part of the Ryoke belt. For the Tso Morari eclogites in Ladakh, P–T conditions of 550 ± 50 °C and 20 ± 3 kbar were initially documented by de Sigoyer et al. The belts form and then are placed in contact along a major fault, the Median Tectonic line (after Yardley, 1989, and after Miyashiro, 1994). February, 1967. Metamorphic facies. One may ask, why doesn’t the rock continue to metamorphose as it cools? O'Brien, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005. (b) Early Eocene India–Asia collision and deep subduction of the continental margin to form UHP eclogites (TM = Tso Morari). The only common tectonic setting where rocks are pushed rapidly into the Earth and buried before they have a chance to heat up is in the subducting slab of a subduction zone. When compiling the map it was in many cases Fig. Metamorphic petrologists studying contact metamorphism early in the 20th century introduced the idea of metamorphic facies (part of a rock or group of rocks that differs from the whole formation) to correlate metamorphic events. Metamorphic Facies. The concept implies that by simply looking at a rock and noting its mineral assemblage, a geologist can determine the temperature and pressure range under which the rock was metamorphosed. Das Substantiv (Hauptwort, Namenwort) dient zur Benennung von Menschen, Tieren, Sachen u. Ä. Metamorphic facies, defined by mineralogical and field criteria, can still be interpreted in terms of a few intensive physical variables. In normal continental crust a typical geothermal gradient within the first 3 to 5 kilometers (2 or 3 miles) of Earth’s surface is about 25°C/km. • Explain how metamorphic facies and index minerals are used to characterize metamorphism in a region. Download PDF (Acrobat (PDF) 21kB May26 07) Schematic pseudosections for low temperature reactions in the system CaO-MgO-SiO 2 -H 2 O. The five metamorphic facies and their diagnostic mineral assemblages. Cross-section showing the inferred postions of low P/T metamorphism and high P/T metamorphism in a plate tectonic setting. The onset of partial melting and the presence of a silicate melt at higher metamorphic grades has several consequences for the facies concept and the characterization of metamorphic grade. Another descriptor for metamorphism is grade, which is a measure of metamorphic pressure-temperature (and fluid) intensity. It seems likely that following Late Cretaceous–Early Paleocene obduction of ophiolites onto the northern passive continental margin of India, the collision of India with Asia during the Early Eocene led to the final closing of Tethys at 50 Ma and the beginning of crustal thickening and regional metamorphism along the Indian Plate margin (Figure 10(a) and 10(b)). Subduction occurred along the whole length of the Zagros, but only local outcrops of blueschists are known at the southeast (SE) end of the Zagros Mountains, just short of the Makran, where subduction still occurs at a rate near ∼8 mm/year. One has to be aware of these complications when working in migmatite areas. Earlier studies have shown that velocities generally increase systematically with progressive metamorphism (e.g., Christensen, 1996). (d) Late Oligocene–Middle Miocene regional sillimanite-grade metamorphism and partial melting to form migmatites and leucogranites, initiation of the Main Central Thrust and South Tibetan Detachment; channel flow. Metamorphic petrologists studying contact metamorphism early in the 20th century introduced the idea of metamorphic facies (part of a rock or group of rocks that differs from the whole formation) to correlate metamorphic events. metamorphic facies. English: Diagram showing metamorphic facies in pressure-temperature space, with approximately depth marked. An Introduction to Igneous and Metamorphic Petrology. The 500°C line is referred to as an isotherm because it is a line of constant temperature. Blueschist and eclogite facies, although relatively uncommon, are extremely important because they form only under high-pressure conditions at relatively low temperature. A metamorphic facies is a set of mineral assemblages in metamorphic rocks formed under similar pressures and temperatures. FIGURE 20.8. The geothermal gradient is defined as the increase in temperature with depth in the Earth. He discovered that as he walked away from the granitic intrusive igneous rock, there was a sequenice of zones that generally reflected the intensity of metamorphism. Both pressure and fluids are capable of influencing metamorphism. Path A reaches blueschist facies but remains at depth, where it continues to heat up, reaching amphibolite facies. Above, some exceptions from this requirement have been given with respect to the granulite and sub-greenschist facies. Andalusite and glaucophane are absent. A set of metamorphic mineral assemblages indicative of a certain P-T range.! URL consultato il 17 luglio 2008 (archiviato dall'url originale il 30 aprile 2008). From: Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), 2003, K. Bucher, in Encyclopedia of Geology, 2005. The eclogites then became encased within lower and middle crustal kyanite- and sillimanite-bearing gneisses of the main Himalayan metamorphic event (Figure 10(c) and 10(d)). (a) Zeolite, blueschist, ecologite facies H2O and other volatiles dissolve in the silicate melt or may be expelled from the melt. 1 forsterite + anorthite ^ clinopyroxene + orthopyroxene + spinel. (d) ~300oC (e) It will melt 42. Video Lecture: Medium PT Metamorphism of Pelites. Other examples of paired belts are listed in Table III. It continues to heat as it undergoes exhumation to a depth of 12 miles (20 km). This eclogite specimen from Jenner, California, consists of high-magnesium pyrope garnet , green omphacite (a high-sodium/aluminum pyroxene) and deep-blue glaucophane (a sodium-rich amphibole). More commonly, only isotopic dating of minerals within the studied rock, or from related intrusive of extrusive rocks, can yield absolute ages. Facies metamorfica: insieme delle associazioni mineralogiche metamorfiche, associate If we treat isograds as reactions, we can: • Understand what physical variables might affect the location of a particular isograd • We may also be able to estimate the P-T-X conditions that an isograd represents. (2000), and peak HP metamorphism was proposed to be 55 ± 12 Ma from Lu–Hf (Grt–Cpx–Rt), Sm–Nd (Grt–Gln–Rt), and U–Pb allanite dating (de Sigoyer et al., 2000). Each specific assemblage in a facies reflects a specific protolith composition! 3, Table II). Important to recognize here is that minerals used for isotopic dating show different resistances to loss of radiogenic isotopes important for geochronology. PDF: Metamorphism of Mafic Rocks. A metamorphic facies is a set of metamorphic mineral assemblages that were formed under similar pressures and temperatures. The earliest metamorphism recorded along the North Indian Plate margin is an (ultra-)high-pressure eclogite facies metamorphic event seen in the Kaghan region, north Pakistan, and in the Tso Morari complex, NW India. Figure 10.1 Grey and white striped metamorphic rocks (called gneiss) at Pemaquid Point were transformed by extreme heat and pressure during plate tectonic collisions. Files are available under licenses specified on their description page. FIGURE 20.9. Figure 10.1 Grey and white striped metamorphic rocks (called gneiss) at Pemaquid Point were transformed by The time-dependent decays of radioactive isotopes in the systems Rb–Sr, K–Ar, U–Th–Pb, Nd–Sm, or Lu–Hf are commonly used in geochronology. Fluids are driven from the rock during metamorphism. St-Onge et al. Scholz, in Treatise on Geophysics (Second Edition), 2007. Metamorphic facies. We use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads. High-grade rocks are present in the North Cascades and in a few areas in the Coast Ranges, Klamath Mountains, Northern Rockies, and Basin and Range. Amphibolites tend to be dark green to black. The plate tectonic model was not available when Miyashiro proposed the concept of paired metamorphic belts. 4, Table III). Metamorphic facies are named for rocks that form under specific conditions (e.g., eclogite facies, amphibolite facies etc. These data suggest the possibility of erecting a sequence of facies, analogous to metamorphic facies, starting at the surface and passing down into the low-grade metamorphic facies. See also. If these fluids are absent when the rock returns to lower temperature then minerals such as chlorite and actinolite, which require fluids to form, will be unable to crystallize and the rock will retain its high-temperature mineral assemblage. Thus, the material we are trying to shear is composed mainly (say 70–80%) of feldspar, which behaves as a hard strong brittle material, with the rest consisting of quartz and some other ductile minerals like mica, which behave as ductile and relatively soft components. A subducting slab will remain cool as it is pushed deep into the Earth, even though surrounding rocks are much hotter. Reactions are less likely to occur if this driving force is increasingly dissipated during cooling. A geothermal gradient for continental crust that accounts for changes at depth is shown in Figure 20.7. Encyclopedia of Physical Science and Technology (Third Edition), In the early 1960s, A. Miyashiro wrote a classic paper on different pressure–temperature belts of regional metamorphism. This type of metamorphic rock is the name of highest-grade metamorphic facies. ! The sequence tells us the relative age but not the absolute age of the different stages. This broadening may result from the effect of increasing temperature in weakening and making the mylonites less fabric softening. FIGURE 5. Metamorphic facies are recognizable terranes or zones with an assemblage of key minerals that were in equilibrium under specific range of temperature and pressure during a metamorphic event. NOMI SPECIFICI DI ROCCE METAMORFICHE Ardesia (Slate): Roccia a grana fine o finissima (i minerali non sono visibili a occhio nudo), ricca in quarzo e fillosilicati, di derivazione pelitica, formata in condizioni di metamorfismo di grado molto basso, generalmente foliata. My book Metamorphic Rocks and Metamorphic Belts (in Japanese) was published by Iwanami Shoten, Publishers, in Tokyo in 1965. So, although this softening occurs with increase in shear strain, it should be more properly called fabric softening rather than strain softening. Peak metamorphic conditions are about 0.7 GPa (21 km depth) and 640°C. 304 0 obj <> endobj 327 0 obj <>/Filter/FlateDecode/ID[]/Index[304 36]/Info 303 0 R/Length 115/Prev 1569182/Root 305 0 R/Size 340/Type/XRef/W[1 3 1]>>stream Mit Flexionstabellen der verschiedenen Fälle und Zeiten Aussprache und … Goldschmidt (1911, 1912a), contact metamorphosed pelitic, calcareous, and psammitic hornfelses in the Oslo region l Relatively simple mineral assemblages The Zagros Mountains were built where the mafic floor of Neo-Tethys closed as part of the Alpine–Himalayan Mountain chain subducted northward from Jurassic to Eocene times (185–35 million years. Qualitatively, the reaction sequence in natural rocks is often visible in the form of growth features, compositional zoning, or breakdown textures. Implicit in this concept is that any surrounding rock, such as a shale metamorphosed to schist, or a limestone metamorphosed to marble, is metamorphosed within a similar temperature-pressure range as the nearby amphibolite. The blueschist metamorphic facies are characterized by the minerals jadeite, glaucophane, epidote, lawsonite, and garnet. The fate of nearly all blueschist and eclogite facies rocks is that they will subduct deeper into the mantle and eventually melt. This is a form of strain delocalization, which implies some sort of hardening mechanism. Using simple ‘rule-of-thumb’ techniques these changing assemblages can be attributed to a sequential path in the metamorphic facies diagram. Granitic intrusions are present and ophiolites are rare. At conditions of the UHT facies, melt is produced even in the absence of H2O. In both areas, widespread eclogite blocks and boudins are encased within basement gneisses (Kaghan) or in regional high-grade sillimanite–cordierite gneisses (Puga gneisses at Tso Morari). • Explain why fluids are important for metamorphism and describe what happens during metasomatism. A feedback mechanism is established whereby additional compression produces greater uplift and greater rates of erosion such that warm rock at depth is quickly exhumed toward the surface. We will therefore consider grade to be roughly synonymous with temperature. “metamorphic facies” therefore, may be defined as a group of metamorphic rocks that have formed under the same set of phsico-chemical conditions and is characterized by a definite set of minerals. Granulite facies rocks represent extreme temperature conditions. Thus, isochemical conditions, the requisite basis for comparing metamorphic rocks from different grades, is no longer maintained in rocks that undergo partial melting. h�ܕmOA���~oȾ�\cLN*����5�[��%x8 ���̂�jc?4m.�����ͳh�`ZLLkPɬ�X@��T�a�)��ށt`���=SRXv��ݽ8O#8Y����Il���T�҂,�׀)+A״�������,��8�'~��.��E��M�����.z͇�nX��_�QsÌ*x7��j|�0�$���[GI�{�8�C$ޛ����tq�1Ѝ��rdm���k��U�m�� Y��m�G��'�廃4yHM5���>u��6qR �z.